Souhardya De

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Religion, the concept of Fundamentalism, and the sui-generis Hindu way

In order to understand what religion is and deepen one’s insights into what I term ‘the faith process’, it would...

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The Dying Princess

The scene depicted in the ‘Dying Princess’ takes place after Buddha’s arrival at Kapilavastu. The Buddha had, by the time...

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God, Para Brahman and Hindu Henotheism

The word ‘Hindu’ stems from the Persian equivalent for ‘Sindhu’, meaning Indus, making a somewhat direct reference to inhabitants who...

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Bhakti ideals, the Nirguna movement and rise of Sikhism

At a time when north India had immersed itself into the fathomless waters of practising orthodox evils in the likes...

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Worshipping Bhoota: the Deccani Ritualistic Dances of India

Indian primitive traditions (that can usually, on an average, be traced back to hundreds, if not, thousands of years) are,...

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When the Tagores painted

Amongst the very influential families that led at the forefront of reformist movement were the Tagores. Indubitably the most illustrious...

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The towering ‘God-Kings’ of Persian empire

Historian Amélie Kuhrt upheaves the ancient Babylonian text Nabonidus Chronicle to be ‘the most reliable account of the fall of...

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A Diversified Urbanisation: mini-European Bengal

Amongst myriad imperialists, the Portuguese were the first to eye the profitable region of Bengal, in as early as the...

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Development of the Sultanate Architecture in Hindustan

With the advent of Islam in Hindustan, came the voguish Arcuate style of architecture which was notably first observed in...

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The Adolescent Maharaja: Nau Nihal Singh of Sikh Empire

Nau Nihal Singh was the third Maharaja of the Sikh empire whose reign began with the dethronement of his father,...

Mallinatha's statue at Anwa, Rajasthan

Jainism and the role of its 24 Tirthankaras

While Mahavira is regarded as the most popular proponent of Jainism, it was only in the Digambara tradition that his...

Vajrayana adopted deities such as Bhairava, known as Yamantaka in Tibetan Buddhism

Vajrayana: The saga of buddhist and Hindu Ideals

Vajrayana is so called because of the tantric cults associated with it. David B. Gray and Thomas Yarnall in their...

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Amb Sharif: The Effaced Cardinal Remnants of the Hindu Shahis

Sadly, there exists no established view till date with regard to who originally built the temples. The Hindu Shahis stood...

A picture showing the Lahore Fort (Alamgiri Gate in background) and Hazuri Bagh Pavilion (foreground) in 1870.

The wall that speaks and a pavilion that declaims

Lahore Fort, the grandest of all the Mughal citadels ever built in Pakistan, isn’t just about another incredibly opulent fortification...

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Rebel princess: Zeb-un-Nissa of the Mughal ménage

Aurangzeb’s eldest daughter, Zeb-un-Nissa, had mastered subjects like philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, history, theology and literature. Also, she was identified to...

Painting depicting nautch girls performing their dance.

The Nautch Atrophy: Decline of Medieval India’s most famed Performing Arts

Analysing broadly, what the British referred to as nautch was a dance form that was specifically prevalent only in the...

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Nangeli and the first documented ‘Pati Sahagamanam’

The tale of Nangeli is symbolic of a woman’s lone resistance against an authority, bringing about an entire change in...

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Megasthenes, Heracles and the Graeco-Indian Classical Antiquity

Although Megasthenes’ deification of Hercules and Dionysus in India, along with several other fictionalised historical facts were ambivalent, he did...

The library of Nysa

 Nagara: An ancient Indo-Dionysiac Metropolis

The earliest details of Nagara are to be found in Ptolemy’s ‘Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis’, locating it to be in ‘India intra...